Wednesday, June 7, 2023

The Power of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

Wastewater surveillance is a valuable tool for monitoring public health and detecting infectious diseases. It plays a crucial role in understanding the interconnection between human activities, public health, and environmental well-being. Wastewater contains a wide range of pollutants, including pathogens, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and microplastics, which can pose risks to both human and environmental health. As the field progresses, innovative methodologies are continuously being developed, providing advancements in time and cost efficiency for analysis. 

by author, with ChatGPT & Bing image Creator

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) emerged in 2001 as a method to monitor drug abuse, and it has since evolved to include various technological advancements in substance detection, providing near real-time and unbiased insights to prevent future drug epidemics. The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked a renewed interest in WBE and highlighted the link between wastewater and population health. The UC Merced COVIDpoops dashboard and the Biobot Network of Wastewater Treatment Plants are examples of global initiatives monitoring SARS-CoV-2 RNA and monkey pox virus DNA in wastewater, with data generated from numerous sites and representing millions of people. 

Wastewater surveillance is a rapidly advancing field with immense potential for enhancing public health, disease prevention, and response to future health crises. By analyzing wastewater, we can gain valuable insights into the health of communities and effectively monitor infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and illicit drug consumption.

WBE has proven to be a valuable tool in detecting various substances and environmental factors in our communities. Beyond its most known applications in monitoring illicit drugs, COVID-19 and enteric viruses, WBE has expanded to encompass the detection of various pharmaceuticals, dietary biomarkers, and environmental contaminants such as metals. By providing a holistic understanding of a city's metabolism, WBE contributes to our knowledge of population health and environmental well-being. As we continue to harness the power of WBE, it is crucial to consider environmental justice and equity when determining the locations for monitoring. With continued advancements and broader implementation, WBE holds the potential to revolutionize public health, enhance environmental monitoring, and promote a more sustainable and equitable future.


REFERENCES

Cheng, Q., Chunhong, Z. & Qianglin, L. Development and application of random forest regression soft sensor model for treating domestic wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor. Sci Rep 13, 9149 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-36333-8

Demian S. Barcellos, Carlos E.R. Barquilha, P├ómela E. Oliveira, Mario Prokopiuk, Ramiro G. Etchepare, How has the COVID-19 pandemic impacted wastewater-based epidemiology?, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 892, 2023, 164561, ISSN 0048-9697, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.164561.

Gitter A, Oghuan J, Godbole AR, Chavarria CA, Monserrat C, Hu T, Wang Y, Maresso AW, Hanson BM, Mena KD and Wu F (2023), Not a waste: Wastewater surveillance to enhance public health. Front. Chem. Eng. 4:1112876. https://doi.org/10.3389/fceng.2022.1112876

Rhodes T, Lancaster K. Early warnings and slow deaths: a sociology of outbreak and overdose. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2023 Jul 1;117:104065.

Naughton CC, Roman Jr FA, Alvarado AG, Tariqi AQ, Deeming MA, Kadonsky KF, Bibby K, Bivins A, Medema G, Ahmed W, Katsivelis P. Show us the data: global COVID-19 wastewater monitoring efforts, equity, and gaps. FEMS Microbes. 2023;4:xtad003.